"The 1998 United States Market for Phytoremediation"
by David J. Glass, Ph.D.
Table of Contents
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Chapter 1. Introduction.
Chapter 2. Phytoremediation Technologies and Applications.
Applications for Soil Remediation
Stimulation of Rhizosphere Bioremediation (Phytostimulation)
Applications for Water Treatment or Control
Hydraulic Barriers for Containment of Groundwater Migration
Vegetative Caps for Containment of Landfill Leachate
Constructed Wetlands (Reed Beds)
Plants Used in Phytoremediation
Natural Metal Hyperaccumulators
Stimulators of Rhizosphere Biodegradation
Plants and Trees with Biodegradative Capabilities
Halophytic (Salt-Loving) Plants
Wetland Species, Commodity Crops, and Other Plants
Substances Amenable to Phytoremediation
Chapter 3. Structure of the Phytoremediation Industry.
Dedicated Phytoremediation Companies
Applied Natural Sciences
Verdant Technologies, Inc.
Diversifying Specialty Companies
Phytoremediation Companies Outside the U.S.
Market Barriers and Corporate Strategies for Small Phytoremediation Companies
Competition from Alternative Technologies
Competition from Larger Companies
Economic Difficulties in Conducting R&D
Corporate Strategies and Outlook for Commercial Success of Small Phytoremediation Companies
Diversified Consulting/Engineering Companies
ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller
MSE Technology Applications, Inc.
Thomas Consultants, Inc.
Other Consulting/Engineering Firms
Corporate Strategies for Consulting/Engineering Companies
Individual Company Research Activities
Industry Research Consortia
Suppliers of Nutrients, Soil Amendments and Related Products
Universities, Nonprofit Labs and the Government
Academic Research Groups
U.S. Government Activities and Research Groups
Government Activities Outside the United States
Company Contact Information
Chapter 4. Summary of Phytoremediation Projects and Demonstrations.
Pathways to Field Implementation of Phytoremediation
EPA SITE Demonstrations
Wood Treatment Site (Portland, OR)
Petroleum Spill in Soil and Groundwater (Ogden, UT)
TCE-Contaminated Groundwater (Military Base, Fort Worth, TX)
Metal Contaminated Soil (Metal Plating Facility, Findlay, OH)
Department of Defense-Supported Projects
Explosives-Contaminated Groundwater (Iowa Army Ammunition Plant)
Explosives-Contaminated Groundwater (Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan TN)
Explosives-Contaminated Groundwater (Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant, Chattanooga, TN)
Groundwater Contaminated with Chlorinated Solvents (Aberdeen Proving Grounds)
Department of Energy-Supported Projects
Biomass Remediation System Projects
Other DOE Projects
Other Demonstration, Pilot and Commercial Projects
Leachate Containment at Municipal Landfills and Solid Waste Facilities
Treatment of Lead-Contaminated Soils using Brassica juncea
Removal of TCE Contaminated Groundwater Using Hybrid Poplars
Phytoremediation Projects Outside the United States
Chapter 5. Factors Affecting Phytoremediation's Potential Market Growth.
Phytoremediation's Strengths and Weaknesses
General Advantages of Phytoremediation
General Disadvantages of Phytoremediation
Barriers to Success of Innovative Technologies and their Impact on Phytoremediation
Barriers to Acceptance in the Marketplace
Barriers and Opportunities for Proving and Improving Phytoremediation's Efficacy
Prospects for Phytoremediation's Growth in the Present Market Climate
Chapter 6. Phytoremediation's Market Potential.
Sizes of Market Sectors Potentially Available to Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation Market Sectors
Hazardous Waste Remediation Market
Radioisotope Remediation Market
Wastewater Treatment Market
Market for Containment of Landfill Leachate and Runoff
International Markets for Phytoremediation
Current and Projected Phytoremediation Markets by Sector
Remediation of Organics from Groundwater
Remediation of Organics from Soils
Remediation of Metals from Soils
Treatment of Metals in Groundwater, Wastewater and Acid Mine Drainage
Remediation of Radionuclides (all media)
Treatment of Municipal Wastewater
Treatment or Control of Landfill Leachate
Overall Market Estimates
Prospects for International Phytoremediation Markets
Chapter 7. Glossary.
Chapter 8. Useful Phytoremediation Sites on the Worldwide Web.
Chapter 9. References.
List of Tables.
Table 1. Applications of Phytoremediation.
Table 2. Substances Amenable to Phytoremediation.
Table 3. Dedicated Phytoremediation Companies and Diversifying Specialty Firms.
Table 4. Ecolotree, Inc. Representative Phytoremediation Projects.
Table 5. Phytokinetics, Inc. Groundwater Phytoremediation Projects Using Deep-Rooted Trees.
Table 6. Phytokinetics, Inc. Surface Soil Phytoremediation Greenhouse and Field Projects.
Table 7. Diversified Consulting/Engineering Companies Pursuing Phytoremediation.
Table 8. ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller Phytoremediation Projects.
Table 9. CH2M HILL Phytoremediation Projects.
Table 10. Industrial Companies Active in Phytoremediation Research.
Table 11. Academic and Non-Profit Organizations Researching Phytoremediation.
Table 12. Selected Phytoremediation Projects in Soils.
Table 13. Selected Phytoremediation Projects in Groundwater and Other Aqueous Wastestreams.
Table 14. Advantages and Disadvantages of Phytoremediation.
Table 15. Cost Estimates of Phytoremediation.
Table 16. Strategies to Improve Phytoremediation.
Table 17. Strategies to Improve Phytoremediation using Genetic Engineering.
Table 18. Summary of Potential U.S. Markets for Phytoremediation.
Table 19. Estimated World Remediation Markets, 1997-2002.
Table 20. Cost Comparisons for Remediation of Organics in Groundwater.
Table 21. Strengths and Limitations of Phytoremediation for Organics in Groundwater.
Table 22. U.S. Phytoremediation Market Share for Organics in Groundwater.
Table 23. Strengths and Limitations of Phytoremediation for Organics in Soil.
Table 24. Cost Comparisons for Remediation of Organics in Soils.
Table 25. U.S. Phytoremediation Market Share for Organics in Soil.
Table 26. Cost Comparisons for Remediation of Metals in Soils.
Table 27. Strengths and Limitations of Phytoremediation for Metals in Soils.
Table 28. U.S. Phytoremediation Market Share for Metals in Soil.
Table 29. Cost Comparisons for Remediation of Metals in Water.
Table 30. Strengths and Limitations of Phytoremediation for Metals in Water.
Table 31. U.S. Phytoremediation Market Share for Metals in Water.
Table 32. Strengths and Limitations of Phytoremediation for Radionuclides.
Table 33. U.S. Phytoremediation Market Share for Remediation of Radionuclides.
Table 34. U.S. Phytoremediation Market Share for Treatment of Organics in Municipal and Industrial Wastewater.
Table 35. U.S. Phytoremediation Market Share for Control of Landfill Leachate.
Table 36. Estimated United States Phytoremediation Markets, 1998-2005.
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